russian civil war casualties

Of the three points of their effective slogan—“Peace, land, and bread”—the first proved to be the most difficult to realize. ): Vers la guerre totale. The second was that the memory of this conflict, although instrumentalized by the Bolsheviks for a short time, could not be that of mass deaths: epidemics, civil war, famine, the Great Terror and the Second World War diluted what in France and in Great Britain appeared as the massacre of massacres, the sacrifice of sacrifices. [9], Chronic illnesses represented a significant proportion of the cases of disability. Soviet demographer Boris Urlanis estimated total number of men killed in action in Civil War and Polish-Soviet war as 300,000 (125,000 in the Red Army, 175,500 White armies and Poles) and total number of military personnel died from disease (on both sides) as 450,000. If tuberculosis was considered a disability, the common pathologies that were due to extreme fatigue or poor food struggled to be recognised as such in Russia during the war. According to Pravda, "The workers of the towns and some of the villages choke in the throes of hunger. 16 percent additional deaths were counted in towns in 1915 and 1916, while the number of deaths in rural areas dropped to 89 and 82 percent compared with 1913. This figure does not take into account the wounded who were not evacuated, which would bring the total to 3,813,827. See RGVIA, f. 16196, op. The total figures give the wrong impression of the social significance of the losses. The Bolsheviks found that this principle applied to themselves after October, when they expected to disengage quickly from World War I. Great for home study or … Among the others, 27.2 percent were given leave to recover, 25.2 percent were declared unfit, 13.4 percent remained after the war in specialised establishments to complete their recovery and 10.2 percent were transferred to other provinces or institutions. [8] In 1924, the psychiatrist Sergej A. Preobrazhenskii, who spent the war treating soldiers at the central hospital for the mentally ill (dushevno-bolnye) of the Petrograd Committee of the Union of Towns, estimated the total number of disabled ex-servicemen from the two wars to be 1.8 million. [7], This disturbing figure only partly includes the neurosis and psychosis caused by the war. There are classic explanations for this unusual phenomenon, the first of which is the destructive nature of mechanical warfare: the power of the artillery which buried or blew men up sometimes leaving no trace, especially for an army whose soldiers had no identification tags. Millions more were also killed by widespread starvation, wholesale massacres by both sides, and pogroms against Jews in Ukraine and southern Russia. Casualties in the Civil War. The Russian Civil War was to tear Russia apart for three years – between 1918 and 1921. These émigrés included a large part of the educated and skilled population of Russia. ): World War, 1914-1918--Russia ; War casualties, Guerre mondiale (1914-1918) ; Pertes ; Russie. (deaths). 7-46. At most, other nationalities had the right to form small cavalry units (Caucasia), of riflemen (the Baltic lands) or labourers (Turkestan). [Works of the commission of inquiry about the sanitary consequences of the war, 1914-1920], Gran, M.M./Kurkina, P.I./Kuvšinnikova, P.A. These 16 million soldiers thus represented almost the total number of available men, contrary to the widespread cliché of “the immense Russian reservoir”. [3], Today it is still just as difficult to determine how many men were mobilised by Russia between 1914 and 1918, how many fought, how many were in prisoner-of-war camps and how many perished. [17] The poor hygiene and meagre food supplies, the hostility of the local populations as well as fatal accidents made an exact number of victims difficult to establish – a foretaste of the civil war to come. Winter, Jay: Entre deuil et mémoire. Following a consideration of these questions, the large number of civilian victims must be emphasized. The violence in battles such as Shiloh, Antietam, Stones River and Gettysburg shocked everyone in the country, both North and South. Finally, Russia’s delay in setting up institutions to deal with prisoners of war was a major factor throughout the conflict, in spite of the insistence of each institutional player on the importance of information for families. It is estimated that the total output of mines and factories in 1921 had fallen to 20% of the pre–World War level, and many crucial items experienced an even more drastic decline. International Encyclopedia of the First World War, ed. Associations between psychosis and physical injury were also discussed. With a population of 150 million people, the Russian Empire, seems to have suffered proportionally fewer losses during the war than France or Germany. The Bolshevik victory ensured the supremacy of the Russian Communists in the nascent Soviet Union. Russian prisoners of war in Germany, 1914-1922], Moscow 2010, p. 361. Nevertheless, the incertitude was due above all to structural factors, the first of which was the tangle of institutions whose job it was to estimate the losses. Novosel’skij, S.A.: «Vljanie vojny na estestvennoe dviženie naselenija» [The influence of the war on the natural evolution of the population], Trudy komissii, p. 115. Includes 5 activities aimed at students 11-14 years old (KS3) & 5 activities aimed at students 14-16 year old (GCSE). The Union armies had from 2,500,000 to 2,750,000 men. Russian prisoners of war in Germany, 1914-1922]. Ob učastii Vserossijskogo zemskogo sojuza v dele okazanija pomošči uvečnym i poterjavšim trudosposobnost’ voinam [About the participation of the Union of Zemstvos in assisting mutilated soldiers and soldiers having lost their ability to work], Moscow 1916, p. 62. The wounded, the disabled, the widows and orphans were taken care of less by a state administration going bankrupt than by philanthropic societies and the Zemgor. David Bullock, the author of The Russian Civil War (2008) has argued that no one has been able to calculate accurately the cost in human life attributable to the Civil War. The works of M. Krivošeev in Rossija i SSSR v vojnah XX veka. It is, however, possible, as we shall see, to establish a rough estimate. As we will see, even if he underestimated total casualties by half, he showed that 1915 and 1916, the years of the war of attrition, were more deadly than 1914, when the war was raging. frontline; casualties; military; medicine; welfare; statistics, "Don’t worry, my darling, we are not Jews", Map of the Pale of Settlement and Russian Poland 1912, A Society Deeply Affected by the Conflict. Estimates of Confederate casualties (killed, wounded, and missing) during the Civil War range from 335,000 to 450,000 and even higher. Situated outside Russia itself, then outside the USSR, the latter by necessity gradually, although only marginally, became part of the history of European pacifism and the history being built of the new nations born of the war. Peasants suffered most of the ordeals of the war. Some 300,000–500,000 Cossacks were killed or deported during Decossackization, out of a population of around three million. Apart from the Slavs (including the Poles), the Chief of Staff only considered it safe to give arms to Jews (who could not be officers). [1] After the war, the Commission on the consequences of the war was unable to provide final figures. Epidemics spread and death strikes—industry is ruined.". The houses are crumbling. 1, d. 853, l. 6. The young nation experienced bloodshed of a magnitude that has not been equaled since by any other American conflict. American Civil War casualties are those soldiers, both Union and Confederate, who died, were wounded, went missing or were captured. : GIZ, 1923, pp. With the Great Retreat in the summer of 1915, whole countries (Poland, Lithuania) found themselves intensely exploited by the German army. Poteri vooruženyh sil, p. 101. Behind the lines, the death of a family member remained abstract, taking the form of an emptiness felt after a long separation, but also the sudden loss of support and a prosperous future. The number of soldiers missing in action and civilian losses suffered distinguish Russia from the other warring nations. However, the perceived threat of another intervention, combined with the failure of socialist revolutions in other countries, most notably the German Revolution, contributed to the continued militarization of Soviet society. Sazonov, L.I. As elsewhere, the great majority of soldiers killed, wounded, missing or captured came from the infantry, where the peasant class, which at the time represented 80 percent of the population of the empire, was predominant. The American Civil War was the nation's bloodiest war. La Grande Guerre dans l’histoire culturelle de l’Europe, Paris 2008. Letters of 27 November and 24 December 1916. In 1917 Russia was in a state of political strife. In effect, there were, respectively, 23,000 and 22,000 deaths per month, as against 8,000 in the first five months of the war. A calculation made after the fall of the Soviet Union estimated the number at 439,369: one-quarter of the 1.89 million deaths in battle. Though the number of killed and wounded in the Civil War is not known precisely, most sources agree that the total number killed was between 640,000 and 700,000. The Russian economy was devastated by the war, with factories and bridges destroyed, cattle and raw materials pillaged, mines flooded, and machines damaged. Because of the war, production had been disorganised, depriving the countryside of workers and animals, which were not replaced either by refugees, who were too weak, or by prisoners of war, who were too few. As many as 10 million lives were lost as a result of the Russian Civil War, and the overwhelming majority of these were civilian casualties. 3, d. 25 (losses), 26 (returns to camp), 45, 56, 62, etc. The railways barely crawl. The human cost of the Civil War was beyond anybody's expectations. Furthermore, they were used as outlets for the frustrations of the “white” units during the civil war. Some 80 percent (1.5 million) still suffered from neurosis or confusion (talking nonsense, loss of memory or hearing), or had even become mentally ill in the proper sense of the term. At least 618,000 Americans died in the Civil War, and some experts say the toll reached 700,000. At any rate, these casualties exceed the nation's loss in all its other wars, from the Revolution through Vietnam. For example, cotton production fell to 5%, and iron to 2% of pre-war levels. During the war, debates within psychiatry questioned the terminology and the role of the war in causing psychiatric illnesses. [20] During the Great Retreat of the summer 1915, the army evacuated all the populations considered to be a potential threat for the immediate rear of the retreating units. By 1922, there were at least 7,000,000 street children in Russia as a result of nearly 10 years of devastation from the Great War and the civil war. Russian Revolution - Causes, Timeline & Definition - HISTORY If the anti-German riots of May 1915 in Moscow, directly linked to the war, only caused a few deaths,[18] the same is not true of the revolt against mobilization in Turkestan. Gran, M. M. / Kurkina, P. I. The exchange rate with the U.S. dollar declined from two rubles in 1914 to 1,200 in 1920. Facts about Russian Civil War 5: the pro independence movements Finally, the Jews became scapegoats in explanations for the series of defeats suffered by the Russian army on the western limits of the empire. 191-219. [14] Communication with families and public communication had to be viewed with skepticism: the lists published in the local and national press did not always correspond to the calculations made by military or health-service statisticians. The Government of Russia, following a study conducted by the Russian Academy of Science in 1993, puts the deaths at 26.6 million, including about 8.66 million military deaths. In 1916, the specialists of Zemstvo considered that 22.2 percent of the wounded and sick had permanently lost their capacity to work, 1.3 percent of whom were no longer autonomous. The first inventory of the archives of the bureau of the number of losses on the fronts of the world war keeps the lists by unit. Le tournant de 1914-1915, Paris 2010, pp. In which we examine some similarities between the Russian Civil War and the 30 Years War, examine Patterson's definition of terror, and … The statistics published by healthcare organisations related both to space (care on the spot, immediately behind the lines or evacuation) and time (return to combat, convalescence, discharge). Kolchak's government shot 25,000 people in Ekaterinburg province alone. The February Revolution changed the course of the war; under intense political pressure, the Tsar abdicated and the Russian Provisional Government … 5, d. 10647, ll. German repression and requisition caused increased mortality in these areas. Culture, National Identity and German Occupation in World War I, Cambridge 2000. The Campaign Against Enemy Aliens during World War I, Cambridge, MA 2003. The Russian Civil War was known as a war between the “Whites” and the “Reds.” The Reds were … At the end of the Civil War, the Russian SFSR was exhausted and near ruin. It is estimated that the former Soviet Union lost some 1.5 million combatants, and around 8 million civilians died following armed attacks, famine and disease. [19] The unrest first grew in the oasis zone before reaching the towns in July. [12] Austria and Hungary, but also in Turkey, Romania and in occupied France. On 24 December 1916, Nikolai V. Ruzski (1854-1918) proposed 11 May, the feast of SS Cyril and Methodius, but the church authorities preferred the day of the Holy Spirit. 35-64. Poteri vooruženyh sil, pp. It was the result of the German defeat in World War I, Polish nationalism, and Bolshevik expansionism in the wake of the Russian Civil War. [22] In other nations, such memorials were focussed on collective grief. If the collapse of political authority was the main factor in the revival of the peasant commune (mir) during 1917, the death of hundreds of thousands of peasants in their prime, heads of smallholdings or older sons who were to become such, also played a role. The peasantry took the opportunity to unite against all non-peasants and solve conflicts over land and other social conflicts themselves. Beyond what was at stake for the army itself, the autocracy and the provisional government were already encountering severe criticism for imposing a “great slaughter” (velikaia boinia) on the Russian people. Only a strong resistance on the part of the civilian authority stopped the operation degenerating into death marches like those of the Armenian genocide. [10] At the end of the war, N. M. Zhdanov estimated that 11.9 percent of sick prisoners had been maimed to such a degree, tuberculosis affecting almost one in five patients.[11]. Based on the statistics, the following losses can be identified: 1. In the 1960s, the Soviet demographer Boris Urlanis (1906-1981) re-assessed the number of military deaths at 908,000, higher than the estimations that until then had been somewhere between 511,068 and 775,369 dead or killed. Russian Federation () The world's costliest civil war, in terms of the number of lives lost during combat and in events relating to the war, is the Russian Civil War of 1917-22. 2-5. In this case, statistical incertitude was due to the progress in Russian and international psychiatry which was both sensitive and much-debated. / Kuvšinnikova, P. A. Secondly, one must assess the types of losses and the causes of the differentials between categories of the population. [2] Its mission was to prove that Russia had been a victim of the conflict and of foreign intervention during the civil war. Lohr, Eric: Nationalizing the Russian Empire. The peasants responded to requisitions by refusing to till the land. : Istorija voennyh poter’ [History of war losses], Saint Petersburg 1994, pp. Chopard, Thomas: «Les violences exercées au cours du processus révolutionnaire et de la guerre civile en Ukraine (1918-1922)», doctoral thesis, EHESS. Anglo-Irish War: 1919 1921 776 : 898 : 1674 Military includes Royal Irish Constabulary. Military, civilian, national and local institutions established these lists according to differing aims and methods. Casualties and consequences of the war. However, the number of casualties per battle remain unclear. Nestor Makhno Nestor Makhno Addendum: Civilian Casualties, The Russian Civil War and the 30 Years War. Gatrell, Peter: A Whole Empire Walking. Another one to two million people, known as the White émigrés, fled Russia—many with General Wrangel, some through the Far East, others west into the newly independent Baltic countries. The Polish victory resulted in the establishment of the Russo-Polish border that existed until 1939. In Ukraine during the civil war, they were the target of the riots against "speculators"; approximately 150,000 men, women and children fell victim to the series of pogroms from 1918 to 1920.[21]. 144-146. Nagornaja, Drugoj voennyj opyt. Most of them were civilians. Finally, the 1918 civil war intensified the terrible human cost of the conflict. All the elements joined forces to cause a serious crisis, the climate being only partly responsible. (See article below) Union Civil War Casualties. Lastly, the most unique factor from the perspective of Russian military losses is the astounding number of those “unaccounted for”. The collective mourning for those lost, fundamental for maintaining the unity of the population, largely failed to take shape in Russia. The thanksgiving services conducted by the priest of the village only offered a mediocre consolation and could not prevent a reflection on the conflict and the political system responsible for it. In response, army attacks and retaliation on the part of the colonizers caused more than 1,000 deaths among the native population. Beyond the figures that are still debated, war losses threw whole groups that were important to the empire off balance: the professional army, the Slav peasants, the western territory with its rich agriculture and developing industry, the colonies of Central Asia and the Jews in the Pale of Settlement. "Reasoned estimates have placed the number of dead from battle and disease in the Red … The third inventory is organised according to type. On the one hand the geographical distance, the lack of clear information and insufficient resources meant that family assistance could not be developed the way it was in France. Basically, several parties within the country sought to overthrow what was once the Russian Empire and the Soviets took over.They started out in St. Petersburg, and then expanded. When considering the mortality rate during the Great War, we must distinguish between the population under Russian administration and that trapped behind enemy lines. Confederate Civil War Casualties. The imperial army was traditionally a hotbed of antisemitism. In 1916, the army Chief of Staff acknowledged more than 5.3 million losses (sick, wounded, missing, killed and taken prisoner), but with an important variable: Russia reported around 439,396 missing, of whom one-third were probably killed, one-third died during care, and another third were sent to prisoner of war camps. There was a project to create a memorial day for the soldiers, like that of 2 November in France, but this never eventuated. The industrial production value descended to one seventh of the value of 1913, and agriculture to one third. An estimated 100,000 Jews were killed in Ukraine, mostly by the White Army. Krivošeev, Rossija i SSSR v vojnah XX veka. Calculating those killed during the Great War was neither easy during that time, nor during the following decades. Civilians were massacred in Kalisz and Kielce because of an evacuation that was insufficiently organised or rejected by the population. World War II was a war that spanned from 1939 to 1945. Poteri vooruženyh sil [Russia and USSR in the 20. [15] This can be explained by the growth of the urban population with the arrival of refugees, the wounded and sick, and the high level of infant mortality. The tendency of the former to minimize losses, and of the latter to exaggerate the quality of treatment for the sick and wounded by particular institutions was accentuated by the distortion owing to temporal and geographical distance. The army updated its lists as well as it could, and sometimes communicated its results. 100-106. Krivošeev, Rossija i SSSR v vojnah XX veka. To die in the ranks of the Tsar’s army represented a giant step towards oblivion: the insufficient preparation of the Russian health and mortuary services, a somewhat unprepared statistics bureau and the localisation of the battles on the borders of the empire put the seal on the transient character of burial places. The civil war saw pillage and requisitioning develop, especially as uncontrolled floods of migrants hindered the redistribution of agricultural products between regions that over-produced and regions that consumed. RGIA, f. 806, op. Thousands of perceived opponents of the Bolsheviks were murdered by … This text A vindictive majority thus imposed a return to the collective organisation of agriculture and actions against the privileged: noble landowners or ecclesiastics and “separator” peasants enriched by the commercialisation of their produce. After the war, the Commission on the consequences of the war was unable t… The droughts of 1920 and 1921, as well as the 1921 famine, worsened the disaster still further. In September 1914, an army commander evicted the entire Jewish population in the Polish fortress of Pulawy, only allowing them twenty-four hours to leave. This database includes lists and narrative reports reporting casualties sustained by Confederate Army units during the war. Peace and the delayed demobilization, the choices of the civil war, the evacuations that were more or less consented to, rendered the collective initiatives for commemoration after the war almost impossible. 315-325. The civil war was fought mostly by Russians loyal to (or forced to fight for) Lenin's communist Bolsheviks against a motley collection of militias known as … I would belive the the deadliest battle would have been the Tsaritsyn(Now Volvograd, previously Stalingrad) which of course happened in the city of Tsaritsyn. Preobraženskij, S.A.: «О pomošči nervno-psihičeskim invalidam» report to the Panrussian congress of psycho-neurologists, Petrograd, 3 January 1924, GARF, f. 4347 (Vserokompom), op. A state of political strife Reds, the Cheka carried out an estimated 100,000 Jews were in. Nikolaus Katzer soldiers missing in action and civilian losses suffered distinguish Russia from the Revolution through Vietnam Red Terror the! Sssr v vojnah XX veka social significance of these losses far heavier the throes of hunger Irish., cotton production fell to 5 %, and cleared the way for Stalinist dictatorship I SSSR v XX! 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